# Characterization of $\BMO^{-1}$

By | June 10, 2018

We fix some notations. For with , we write We denote by which is a collection of all open balls in . Let be an open subset of . By , we denote the homogeneous Sobolev space defined as the completion of the complex-valued functions in the seminorm . The dual space is .

The space `bounded mean oscillation’ is introduced by John and Nirenberg . A locally integrable function is in if One research direction on PDEs is to study the global well-posedness(GWP) for small data and local well-posedness(LWP) for large data . Note that the natural scaling of the Navier-Stokes equation is

(1) So it is natural to find a function space which is scaling invariant in this scaling. As an example, and are scaling invariant in this scaling. Kato  proved GWP for small initial data and LWP for initial data of the Navier-Stokes equation in . Similar result holds for . This result is proved by Cannone  and Planchon . In , Koch and Tataru considered this problem, which is the largest spaces for the well-posedness. For , note that is scaling-invariant with respect to \eqref{eq:NS-scaling}. Motivated by this, to gurantee the well-posedness, we require satisfying This is related to the Calerson measure characterization of the space . See Stein .

Motivated by this, we define the norm by The following theorem is proved in [4,Theorem 1].

Theorem 1. Let be a tempered distribution. Then if and only if there exist with .

In this note, we give an another characterization of which was proved by Maz’ya and Verbitsky . In that paper, they proved the following the Helmholtz decomposition:

Theorem 2. Let . Suppose that there exists a constant such that

(2) for all cube in . Then we have where The condition \eqref{eq:BMO-inverse-characterization} is motivated from the form boundedness of second-order elliptic operators. See  for more details. Now we state the main theorem of this note.

Theorem 3. Let be a tempered distribution in , . Then if and only if there exists a constant such that \eqref{eq:BMO-inverse-characterization} holds for all cube in .

Proof. By Theorem 2, we have where and . Set . So and hence by Theorem 1.

Conversely, suppose that , where . Then for every supported on a cube , we have for some constant which does not depend on and . Hence by  duality, we have Here constants does not depend on . This completes the proof.

Remark. There is a Littlewood-Paley characterization of .

References

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equations, Rev. Mat. Iberoamericana 13 (1997), no. 3, 515–541. MR 1617394
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3. Tosio Kato, Strong L p -solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation in R m , with applications to weak solutions, Math. Z. 187 (1984), no. 4, 471–480. MR
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4. Herbert Koch and Daniel Tataru, Well-posedness for the Navier-Stokes equations, Adv. Math. 157 (2001), no. 1, 22–35. MR 1808843
5. V. G. Maz 0 ya and I. E. Verbitsky, Form boundedness of the general second-order differential operator, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 59 (2006), no. 9, 1286–1329. MR 2237288
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